Definition: a sudden decrease in renal (kidney) function sufficient to cause a build up of waste products in the body. There are 3 major categories of ARF:
1) Pre-renal causes: A decrease in blood flow going into the kidney.
2) Renal causes which are a result of problems within a kidney.
3) Post-renal or obstructive causes, i.e. as a result of obstruction to the renal outflow of urine.
In this situation the bladder muscle is unable to contract at all and acts like a floppy bag. It can be caused by bladder outflow obstruction, for instance, as a consequence of prostatic enlargement. If the obstruction is relieved the bladder may not be able to empty due to the lack of bladder muscle function.
This is a device that can be implanted into the body that can assist with continence if the body's normal sphincter has been damaged. This can occur after operation for stress incontinence in women or prostate cancer in men, or in certain neurological conditions.