glossary
glossary
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carcinoma in situ (CIS)

Cancer cells found only on the surface of the inner lining of the bladder, which is always considered a high grade tumour with the potential to spread out of the bladder if not treated effectively.


clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC)

In this situation the patient passes a small catheter down the urethra in order to empty the bladder. This is usually advised if the patient is retaining urine within the bladder in certain situations.


computed tomography scan (CT scan)

A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body taken from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. Also called computed tomography scan, computerized tomography, computerized axial tomography scan, and CAT scan.


cushing's disease

This is caused by the excessive production of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland. ACTH then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce excessive cortisol.

Symptoms include increased appetite and drinking lethargy hair loss abdominal weight gain susceptibility to infections and thinning and weakening of the skin.


cushing's syndrome

This is a condition resulting in the increased production of cortisol a hormone produced by the adrenal glands within the body. It can be caused by the excessive intake of steroid hormones.

Symptoms include increased appetite and drinking lethargy hair loss abdominal weight gain susceptibility to infections and thinning and weakening of the skin.


cystitis

Literally means "inflammation of the bladder". It is usually caused by urinary tract infection, however there are situations where cystitis like symptoms can occur in the absence of infection. Symptoms include frequency and urgency of urination, burning or pain on passing urine and occasionally blood in the urine. A simple urine test will usually determine whether there is any infection.


cystolitholapaxy

This is the breaking up and removal of a bladder stone using a cystoscope


cystolithotomy

This is the removal of a bladder stone via an incision through the abdominal wall.


cystoscope

This is a small telescope that can be passed down the urethra into the bladder for diagnostic purposes or treatments, such as, insertion of J-J stent or treatment of bladder tumours. Rigid cystoscopy is carried out under general anaesthetic.