surgical removal of the kidney .
This describes deposits of calcium salts (e.g. oxalate or phosphate) within the small ducts and tissue of the kidneys. If nephrocalcinosis is sever it may lead to an overall decrease in kidney function. The calcium salts may be the starting point of kidney stones.
This describes the presence of one or more stones within the kidney urinary collecting system or ureter.
This is a telescope that is used during PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) to examine the inside of the kidney system and to enable treatment of kidney stones.
A nephrostomy involves putting a small needle directly into the kidney to drain urine, if the kidney is obstructed.
This means having to passing urine at night. This is a common symptom of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) due to prostatic enlargement.