glossary
glossary
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paraneoplastic syndrome

This refers to a large unrelated group of medical problems, which can arise in patients suffering with cancer.

It appears to be the result of a release of chemical substances from the cancer cells, which can then travel and affect other organs.


partial nephrectomy

This involves removing the part of the kidney that is diseased. It can be carried out for localised scarring of a kidney due to infection or stones.

It is also carried out if the patient has a small localised cancer with accompanying reduced kidney function.


PCA3

A genetic probe urine test used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. PCA3 is a urine-based assay used to provide clinicians with information for patients who have an elevated serum PSA, in conjunction with a previous negative prostate biopsy.


prostatitis

This literally means inflammation of the prostate. This is the most common urological diagnosis in men under the age of 50. It can affect between 10-30% of men.

The symptoms of chronic prostatitis include pain on passing urine, pain in the pelvis area as well as pain in the testicles, upper legs and sometimes in the lower abdomen.

A stressful lifestyle can sometimes aggravate the symptoms of prostatitis. Investigations will look for a bacterial cause; however, on most occasions no specific bacteria will be found.

Treatment will depend on the clinical history and examination and the results of investigations. This will be discussed at your consultation.


PSA blood test

A blood test that measures levels of a protein called Prostate Specific Antigen that is manufactured exclusively by the prostate gland; elevated levels of PSA can indicate prostate problems.


pyelonephritis

An infection of the kidney as a result of a urinary tract infection.