glossary
glossary
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radical cystectomy

Surgery to remove the bladder as well as nearby tissues and organs as a curative measure for localized bladder cancer.


rectal examination

This is an examination performed by the doctor using lubricating jelly to examine the prostate. The patient is usually lying on his left side with the knees bent.

Examination of the prostate in this way will allow an estimation of prostatic size and examination for any irregularities of the prostate.


renal cell carcinoma

renal cell cancer is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Over 80 out of every 100 kidney cancers diagnosed in the UK are this type.

In renal cell cancer, the cancerous cells are found in the lining of the tubules (the smallest tubes inside the kidney that help filter the blood and make urine).

Generally, how aggressive the cancer is likely to be is graded in a particular way, by looking at the cells under a microscope. The kidney cancer grading system is called the Fuhrman system.


renal colic

This is a sudden abdominal pain caused by the passage of a stone down the urinary tract. The pain may be very severe causing the patient to double over and possibly vomit.

The pain is typically intermittent, coming in waves and the patient may not be able to sit still. The site of the pain will be in the loin, over the abdomen, in the groin area or tip of the penis or a combination of all of the above.

The patient may require opiate (morphine) pain relief to relieve the symptoms.


renogram

This is a type of kidney scan which reveals how much of the kidney is actually functioning and if there is any obstruction to the urine flow out of the kidney.

A tiny amount of radioactive liquid is injected into the blood stream and the pictures are taken as the contrast is removed in the urine.


rigor

A shaking chill usually associated with kidney infection (e.g. pyelonephritis). The uncontrollable shaking may accompany a high fever and may also be intermittent in nature.