• urinary history - Lower urinary tract symptoms, loin pain
  • medical history - History of urinary tract infections or pyelonephritis, renal stones, previous pelvic radiotherapy, previous STD's (possible urethral stricture), previous tuberculosis
  • drug history - Non-steroidal anti inflammatories, warfarin and similar drugs, exposure to industrial carcinogens
  • drugs causing diptix false positive results - Iodine and hypochlorite in antiseptic solutions
  • social history - Smoking, travel to Africa or the Middle East (schistosomiasis exposure)
  • family history - Renal stones, Hypertension disorders, Sickle cell disease