urological or nephrological referral?

Urology referral if:

  • Urine microscopy demonstrating
  • >3 RBC's/ HPF of urine
  • Positive urine cytology
  • Men presenting with a urinary tract infection
  • Urine cytology examination

Nephrology referral if microscopic haematuria with one or more of the following:

  • More than a trace of protein on Dipstix
  • Other clinical evidence of parenchymal renal disease
  • Elevated urea or creatinine on blood tests